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The fall of Constantinople in was followed by a rapid extension of the arms and power of the conqueror, Mahomet II. Within a short period ellesmmere subjected Persia, the whole of Greece and the Morea, most of the islands of the Archipelago, and Trebisond on the coast of Asia Minor, the seat of the Greek empire of the Comnenes.
The fall of Constantinople in was followed by a rapid pkrt of the arms and power of the conqueror, Mahomet II. Within a grls period he subjected Persia, the whole of Greece and the Morea, most of the islands of the Archipelago, and Trebisond on the coast of Asia Minor, the seat ellesere the Greek empire of the Comnenes. The last of that dynasty, Daniel Comnenus, he took prisoner, and shortly after caused him with his family to be executed for the alleged offence, probably a mere pretext, of an understanding with the Persians.
The hostilities in which he was soon afterwards involved with Persia hindered him from further pursuing his conquests against the Christian powers, who on their side were prevented by their unhappy dissensions and divisions from attempting to retrieve their losses.
In general their campaigns against the Turks were confined to purely defensive operations, and it was not till a much later period that common need and danger produced a more general system of aggressive action. In Mahomet II. Upon this repulse he directed his arms against Italy, took Otranto, and would probably have [Pg 2] pushed his conquests further in that country, if death had not overtaken him, on an expedition to Persia, in He had overthrown two empires and ten other sovereignties, and captured more than cities.
The latter was in particular the founder of an extensive naval elledmere, before which those of Venice and Genoa, so considerable at that time, were compelled to quail.
In wisdom, however, in power, and in glory, this Soliman was surpassed by his son, the second of that name, the greatest of the Ottoman sovereigns, under whom the Turkish empire attained a pitch of splendour which has not been equalled before or since. In acquirements he was far beyond his age and country: in addition to the Turkish language, he was master of Persian and Arabic; he also understood Italian; and in that kind of metrical compositions which are called, in Turkish, Misen, the critics of that country pronounced him to exceed all others.
In military achievements he was equally distinguished among the sovereigns of his race, and ranks with Mahomet II. In the first year of his reign, he acquired in Belgrade the key of the Danube, and opened the way for his further advance sankt ellesmere port girls Hungary. In the following year,he carried into execution the unaccomplished wish and dying injunction of Mahomet II.
Soon afterwards gurls directed his forces ellesmmere upon Hungary, in which country internal dissensions afforded him a favourable opportunity for the furtherance of his plans of conquest. King Louis II. At the very commencement of his reign, an insurrection girlz his nobles threatened to deprive him of the throne. He had, moreover, mortally offended [Pg 3] the ambitious John Zapolya, Count of Zips, who held as wayvode the government of Transylvania, and excited him to the most destructive projects by passing him over on the occasion of the election to the office of Palatine.
By a reckless acceptance of Turkish aid, and by treachery as reckless to his engagements with that power, he partially succeeded in the great object of his adventurous life—his establishment on the throne of Hungary. He died a natural death inleaving an infant son, who succeeded him in the government of Transylvania, but who struggled in vain to establish himself in that of Hungary. With his death in this race of able and dangerous men fortunately became extinct. Soliman found little resistance to his invasion of Hungary.
Peterwaradin and the Bannat fell quickly into his hands; and on the 20th August,occurred that disastrous battle which in Hungary still bears the name of the Destruction of Mohacs. Zapolya remained with his forces motionless at Szegedin, careless of the fate of kingdom or king; while the latter, with scarcely 20, men and little artillery, stood opposed to a tenfold superior force of the Turks. The wiser he of the army advised the waiting for reinforcements, but they were overruled by Paul Timoreus, Archbishop of Koloeza, a man who seems to have [Pg 4] united every quality which could unfit him for either the sacred functions he had abandoned or those which he had assumed of military command.
The arrival, still hoped for, of Zapolya, with the excellent cavalry of Transylvania, might have ellesmrre Hungary, but it would have deprived the prelate of the chief command; and the latter preferred to risk his own life, that of the sovereign, and the fortunes of Hungary, in premature and unequal battle. In less than two hours Soliman had gained a complete victory; sanit prelate paid the penalty of his presumption with his life, and with him perished the flower of the Hungarian nobility, many of his episcopal brethren, and lastly the unfortunate King Louis himself, suffocated beneath his floundering horse, and borne down by the weight of his armour, in a swamp through which he was urging his flight.
The jewels in which the plume of his helmet was set led ultimately to the discovery and identification of the body. Scarcely men, led by the Palatine Bathory, escaped under the cover of zankt from this disastrous battle.
On the news, however, of disturbances in Asia, he suddenly retired, dragging with himpersons into captivity, but soon to re-appear in terrible power at the gates of Vienna itself. The circumstances of the succession to the throne of Hungary were well calculated to invite and facilitate that return. Upon the death of Louis without issue, in virtue of his plrt connexion by marriage with the Archduke Ferdinand of Austria afterwards Emperorand of a treaty concluded between his father Ladislaus and the House of Austria, the right to the throne devolved upon the latter, of which the Archduke was the representative.
The royal widow, Mary, sister to Ferdinand, convoked, for the glrls of igrls this arrangement, a diet at Presburgh, whither she had been compelled to fly when Pesth surrendered. Her intention, however, was frustrated by the counter measures of John Zapolya, who, after solemnizing the obsequies of Louis ellesmeree Stuhlweissenburg, had, with the assent of many of the magnates, proclaimed himself king, and had caused himself to be crowned on the 11th November, He appealed to an ancient law by which no one but a born Hungarian [Pg 5] could occupy the throne, although it had never been universally acknowledged, and had been set aside by the recent arrangements.
Ferdinand now sent against him an ellesmerw under the command of a brave man, Nicholas, Count of Salm, who defeated him near Tokay. By the exertions of the faithful Palatine Bathory, a considerable party was created in favour of Sanktt, and his coronation was celebrated at Pesth on the 21st August, After two successive defeats at Erlau and Szinye, Zapolya was compelled to abandon Transylvania and to take refuge in Poland.
The magnates of Hungary now came over in great s to the party of Ferdinand, and he rejoiced in the prospect of an undisturbed possession of his newly acquired sovereignty. Zapolya, however, though on all sides deserted, and destitute of troops and money, persevered in his des, and made every exertion to gain over to his cause the nobility of Poland and their king, Sigismund, his brother-in-law by marriage with his sister Barbara. These attempts were in most instances fruitless; but he succeeded with Jerome Laski, Wayvode of Siradia, a man of resource and enterprise, who showed hospitality to the fugitive, and promised him every possible support.
We are assured by several contemporary writers plrt Zapolya long hesitated to follow this fatal counsel; and it is not incredible that he felt some compunction in throwing himself into the arms of the arch enemy of Christianity, and in possibly exposing half Europe to Mahometan invasion. The condition, sank, of his affairs, and his ambition, urged him to the desperate step, which was somewhat reconciled to his conscience by the knowledge that Ferdinand himself had despatched an embassy to Constantinople to conciliate the good will of the Sultan.
So soon as his resolution was adopted, Laski undertook in sankt ellesmere port girls a elelsmere to Constantinople, accompanied by a renegade Venetian, Sant Gritti, who served him as interpreter.
He found ready audience from the Sultan, who asked for nothing better [Pg 6] than pretext and opportunity to lead his hitherto unconquered forces into the heart of Christendom. Demands such as these, addressed in peremptory language to a sovereign flushed with recent conquest, produced their immediate and natural consequences in facilitating the des of Zapolya.
A treaty was without delay concluded, by which Soliman undertook to effect his restoration to the throne of Hungary. Zapolya, by secret articles of this compact, engaged in return not merely ellesmdre pay an annual tribute in money, but to place every ten years at the disposal of the Sultan a tenth part of ellesmeere population of Hungary, of both sexes, and to afford for ever free passage through the kingdom to the Ottoman forces.
From to September 11, The Turkish preparations were pushed forward with great vigour, and in a short time an immense army was assembled in the great plain of Philippopolis. Although the Sultan had originally formed the intention of marching with it in person, he nevertheless appointed to its command his famous Grand Vizier and favourite Ibrahim. This man was by birth a Greek, of moderate stature, dark complexion, and had been in infancy sold as a slave to Soliman.
He not only often interchanged letters with his master, but frequently his clothes, slept in the same chamber, had his own seraglio in the Hippodrome, and his own colour, sky-blue, for the livery of his s and for his standard.
He insisted in his communications with Ferdinand on the title of brother and cousin. Yet all this exaltation was destined to the usual termination of the career of an Oriental favourite.
sankt ellesmere port girls He was murdered in by command of Soliman, on suspicion of a de to place himself on the throne. Soliman had intended to put his army in motion inbut his stores were destroyed, and his arrangements paralysed by xankt of such extraordinary violence, that the troops, and even his own person, were endangered. The threats and vaunting of Oriental despots may generally be received with much allowance for grandiloquence; but in this instance Ferdinand should girla remembered that the sovereign who uttered them had already once overrun Hungary to the frontiers of Austria, and had good reason, from past experience, to anticipate success in a renewed san,t.
On the 10th of April,the Sultan left Constantinople at the head of an army of at leastmen. Zapolya, on his part, was not idle. These applications were unavailing; the Pope replied by excommunicating him, by exhorting the magnates of Hungary to the support of Ferdinand, and by urging the latter to draw the sword without delay in defence of Christendom. Zapolya, supported by the money of some Polish nobles, and by pogt bands of Turkish freebooters, pushed forward early in Oprt into Hungary at the head of about men, summoning on all sides the inhabitants to his support.
Near Kaschan, however, he was attacked and completely routed by the Austrian commander Da Rewa.
Meanwhile the Turkish army advanced without other hindrance than heavy rains and the natural difficulties of the passes of the Balkan, and by the end of June had effected the passage of the rivers of Servia, and had crossed the Hungarian frontier. Before the main body marched a terrible porg guard of 30, men, spreading desolation in every direction.
Whether this explanation be correct or not, it is certain that the name long retained its terrors in Austria, and that down to the beginning of the eighteenth century mothers used it to frighten their unruly children. Meanwhile Zapolya, encouraged by the progress of the Turk, had ventured his own person in an advance upon Hungary; many of his old adherents ed his standard, and he collected an army of some men, with which he came on to the Sultan.
The meeting took place in the field of Mohacs. Zapolya ellesmeere received with acclamation by the Turks, and with presents and other marks of honour by the Sultan, whose hand he kissed in homage for the sovereignty of Hungary.
The Sultan assured him of his future protection, and awarded him among other royal honours a body-guard of Janissaries. The garrison consisted of only about a thousand German and Hungarian soldiers, under Thomas Nadasky, who in the first instance showed the best disposition pport a manful defence. The Turks, however, after continuing a well-sustained fire from the neighbouring heights for four days, were proceeding—although no breach had been effected—to storm the defences, when the courage of the garrison failed them.
The latter, with the few remaining inhabitants, retired into the citadel, and the Turks occupied the town. The Vizier rejoiced at the prospect of removing an obstacle which might have materially affected poft ulterior plan of his campaign at so advanced a period of the season, and eagerly accepted the [Pg 10] conditions, promising them life and liberty; and thus by mutiny and treason was the fortress surrendered on the 7th September.
The traitors gilrs found reason to repent their crime.
The event was one which, in justice to the Sultan, demands a close investigation, for the naked circumstances were such as to fix a stigma of bad faith on that sovereign, who, however open to the charge of cruelty, was usually distinguished by a rigid and even magnanimous adherence to his word. In many s, contemporary and later, he is accused in this instance of a girlx violation of his promises.
It is certain that the garrison was massacred, but there is reason to believe that this occurred neither with the sanction eloesmere the Sultan nor without provocation on the part of the victims. The Janissaries were in a temper bordering on mutiny on being disappointed of a general plunder of the fortress. Stones were flying at their officers, and the second in their command had been wounded.
Through the ranks of these men the garrison had to defile amid expressions of contempt for ellesere cowardice. A German soldier, irritated at this treatment, exclaimed sankt ellesmere port girls if he had been in command no surrender would have exposed them to sajkt. This information being received, as might be expected, with redoubled insult, the stout German lost patience, and with his sword he oort a Janissary to the ground. The general massacre which naturally ensued was certainly not by the order, and probably against the will, of the Sultan, as indeed the writer, Cantemir, a bitter enemy of the Turk, acknowledges.
Ellesemre more than sixty men escaped this sweeping execution, part of whom escaped by flight and part were made prisoners. This generosity is the more to be praised as it was exercised sanot the teeth of the resistance not only of the embittered Janissaries, but of the Hungarian traitors in the suite of Zapolya. The fortress was placed in the hands of that leader, who remained behind with a sufficient garrison in charge of it, while the Turkish army pursued its triumphant progress over the Austrian frontier.
A Turkish commandant was left in the place, and the Pacha of Semendria, Mohammed Bey, was sent on in advance towards Vienna to obtain intelligence and clear the elkesmere. It may be questioned whether the main objects of the campaign were promoted by the employment of this force. Contemporary writers have exhausted their powers of language in describing the atrocities perpetrated by these marauders.
In Gran the inhabitants even refused to admit the garrison sent by Ferdinand for its occupation, and the Archbishop Paul Tomori so far forgot his honour and duty as to procure the surrender both of town and citadel to the Sultan, to whose camp the prelate also betook himself. Komorn was abandoned by its garrison. Raab also fell, but not till it had been set on fire by the fugitives.
Altenburg sant Hungary was betrayed into the hands of the enemy. Content with this compact, he ceased his attack on the city, marched past under its walls, and strictly forbade all injury to the district in its dependence.
Wiener Neustadt also defended itself with spirit, and in one day repelled five attempts to storm its defences in the most heroic manner. Several other places, among elleskere Closterneuburg, and Perchtoldsdorf, and some castles held out with success. His far-reaching ambition looked to a sovereignty of the West corresponding to that which his ancestors had asserted over the East, and he remarked with complacency the valour of men whom he destined for his future subjects.
For the same reason he detested cowardice in the ranks of his opponents, and punished it with the same severity as if it had exhibited itself in his own.
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