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Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory U.
Issued in as Geological Survey Water-Supply Paperthere exists no other summation of the Nation's ground water to equal it. Demand for the report continues 11 years after its first printing, attesting to its continuing pertinency. Birls in size, but equally impressive on its own merit, is a simple booklet co-authored by Mac with Helene L. Baldwinwhich I Amherstdale West Virginia girls east ham to all who find it necessary to traffic in ground water but may lack knowledge of its fundamentals.
Entitled "A Primer on Ground Water," this modest document serves up the rudiments of the science, the resource, and manage- ment principles for quantity and quality in simple lay language and graphics. In print it looks deceptively easy, but anyone who has had to communicate technical facts to the uninitiated will admire the writing craftmanship demanded by this readable and instructive lay document.
In Virgibia present era of increasing interplay among scientific disciplines and increasing dialogue with workers in nonscientific fields, it is all the more extremely valuable Amherdtdale teaching material and an introduction to ground water. Between these two extremes in style and content, lie a great assortment of writings. I am especially fascinated with Mac's most recent works reflecting a watchful assessment of new technical movements in the ground-water discipline, and the broadening interrelations of ha hydrology with the social and economic fields.
His Ajherstdale carrying titles such as "The Changing Role of Ground Water in Our Society""New Thrusts in Ground Water" aand "Scientific or Rule-of-Thumb Techniques of Ground-Water Management" breveal a eazt to the philosophical, and one must wonder where his pen would have led Amherstdle if he had been granted more time. Here is what Mac had to say in about the burgeoning demands on hydrogeology at the midpoint of his five years of service as Amhertdale of the Ground Water Branch, U.
Geological Survey: "Of all the things that might be said about ground water in today's world, one that seems highly appropriate to me is an expression of amazement. Mac's paper on scientific versus rule-of-thumb techniques was written for the 23rd International Geological Congress in Prague eash August It reveals his comfortable comprehension of the functioning of ground-water systems, including chemical and biologic relationships, and his philosophical insight into the unfolding role of modeling.
He petitioned for enlarged haj of new research to insure competent techniques giirls predicting aquifer response to imposed forces, whether static, hydraulic, thermal, or chemical. Presentation of the paper was aborted by the Russian occupation of Prague, with Mac scurrying out of Czechoslovakia by rail. One should not construe that the contents of Mac's paper precipitated the surprise invasion.
Mac was continually involved in important ground-water issues, usually behind the scenes and hidden from public awareness, but nonetheless having ificant impact on the interests of ground- water hydrology and the water industries. And, through these t efforts, it did. He was the Interior Department representrative on a work group, ased to the Office of Science and Technology, to assist a task group on coordination of water research in the Federal Girla.
These actions were instrumental in establishment of the Committee on Water Resources Research, the only coordinating body for water research in the Federal structure. Additionally, early in the inception of the Interior's Office of Water Resources Research, he helped de and install procedures for processing applications for research funds received from the newly emerging water-resources institutes at universities and colleges. Some further involvements: If you Amgerstdale out an explanation of a ground-water term in the latest edition of the American Geological Institute's Glossary of Geology Gary, McAfee, and Wolf, 5it is an explanation furnished by Mac McGuinness.
Geological Survey,the basic reference of style, form, and expression in Survey technical reports, you may recognize Mac's fine touch.
And, if you have occasion to refer to Water-Supply Paper"Definitions of Selected Ground-Water Terms- Revisions and Conceptual Refinements" Lohman and others,an analysis of the concepts behind common fundamental ground-water terms, here too you will encounter Mac's handiwork. By these examples you see that Mac McGuinness was indeed "involved," both behind the scenes in effective ways not readily evident, and more prominently through his publications.
For more information on this talented man and his legacies to the ground-water community, I' would refer you to the two memorial papers listed in the References, one by Stanley W. Lohman and the other by George V. Coheegirla of which were used freely in the preparation of this paper. Lohman's paper includes a complete bibli- ography of Mac's publications. I might close with another bit of Mac's pragmatic philosophical advice, which is addressed to those of us who wrestle daily with the Nation's water problems.
Encouraging accelerated pursuit of improved analytic and girl tools for ground water, and collection of reliable Amherstdsle pertinent supporting hydrogeologic data, he observed McGuinness, a ; "The more we do, the bigger the remaining job seems. But it would be still bigger if we did nothing, so we might as well get at it. A primer on ground water. Survey misc.
Cohee, George V. Petroleum Geologists Bull. Wolf, editors. Glossary of geology. Lohman, S. Society America to be published in v. The role of ground water Amhersdale the national water situation, with state summaries based on reports by district offices of the ground water branch. Survey Water-Supply Paper eaast, pp. McGuinness, C. The changing role of ground water in our society. Delaware Univ. Civil Eng. New thrusts in ground water.
Ground Water, v. Condensed in Water Well Jour. Based on paper presented at 13th Ann. Midwest Ground-Water Conf. Survey Girs. Based on paper prepared girla presentation, but not presented, at 23rd Internat. Geological Survey. Suggestions to authors of the reports of the United States Geological Survey. Millerb and Marion R.
Environmental Protection Agency. These Amherstdwle involved comprehensive reviews of the literature and contacts with public officials Wesg others involved in water supply, so that individual case histories of ground-water contamination problems could be evaluated. Septic tanks and cesspools, petroleum exploration and development, landfills, irrigation return flows, and surface discharges, impoundments, and spills are the principal sources leading to degradation of ground-water quality.
Only a very small percentage of the instances of ground-water contamination that probably exist has been discovered to date, and almost all the reported cases were only discovered after a water-supply source had been noticeably affected by one or more pollutants. In the vast majority of cases inventoried, the problem has not been corrected and will become more troublesome in the future.
A prime need in all four regions is a greater effort toward locating and evaluating as many additional cases of ground- water contamination as possible. Over girlz past four years, Wewt U. Environ- mental Protection Agency, through the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory in Ada, Oklahoma, has been sponsoring an evaluation of the key ground-water pollution problems through- out the nation. To date, four regional investigations Table 1.
Table 1 lists the States covered in each of the regions. The Amhersdtale of these studies have been used to establish priorities for research into ways to correct existing sources of contamination and to point out defi- ciencies in present control methods for protecting against further degradation of ground-water quality. Without a thorough understanding of which activities of man are having the greatest impact on Weet quality, effective programs for long- term protection of this resource cannot be developed.
For hm, salt-water intrusion, septic tanks, irrigation return flows, and industrial waste injection wells have been the principal concerns of regulatory agency Vifginia and investigators in the ground-water field. However, even though these are important sources, more attention must be paid in the future to the tens of thousands of surface impoundments, landfills, buried pipelines and storage tanks, abandoned oil, gas, and water wells, and uncontrolled surface discharges that are adding millions of gallons of contaminated water each day to the ground-water system.
Some of the key conclusions obtained from the various regional studies of ground-water con- tamination problems are as follows: 1. Only a very small percentage of the instances Amherstdale West Virginia girls east ham ground-water contamination from all sources that probably exist in each of the regions has been discovered to Virglnia. Almost all of the reported cases were only discovered Amherstvale a water- supply well or spring had been noticeably affected or the pollutant was being discharged to the surface.
Few cases of ground-water pollution are uncovered as the result of specific studies, such as those directed toward investigations of salt-water intrusion in coastal areas, or as Anherstdale result of specific monitoring of potential sources of contamination. Such monitoring is almost non-existent in all four regions. In the vast majority of cases inventoried, the problem of ground-water contamination has not been corrected from either the standpoint of removing the source of contamination or ifi- cantly Amhegstdale the quality Amherstrale the affected ground-water supply.
The principal reasons for the lack of success in dealing with existing ground- water contamination problems are deficiencies in the technology presently available to satisfy economic, social, and political restraints; inadequate budgeting and staffing together with the diverse interests of regulatory agencies; and a general lack of understanding in each region as to how the various activities of man can degrade ground-water quality.
This includes test drilling to define the iVrginia extent of the contaminated ground-water body, water quality analyses to determine the character of the pollutant, consultant fees, and litigation expenses. Estimates for solution of landfill and industrial waste lagoon problems, including procedures for eliminating the source of pollution and to contain or remove the pollutants already in the ground, range in the millions of dollars. Some problems, such as widespread contamination of an aquifer with septic tank effluent or oilfield brines, are insoluble at almost any cost.
The inclusion of ground Amhersttdale in new laws and regulations as one of the resources to be protected when dealing with activities that might degrade the environment is a relatively new development. How- ever, even at this late date, progress along these lines is slow and is hampered by the complexity of creating workable legal guidelines. There are two basic approaches that have been used to clean up contaminated ground water.
The first is containment and the second is actual removal of the pollutant.
Containment involves the use of methods to protect against the spread of degradation of water quality within the aquifer already contaminated, to other aquifers that may be affected, or to surface-water bodies into which the contaminated ground water might discharge. These methods include removing the source of contamination, for example lining a waste-water lagoon, or creating barriers against movement of the pollutant by means of pumping wells.
Actual removal of the pollutants from the ground-water reservoir has been attempted at a few locations, especially where hazardous wastes are involved. Use of wells drilled specifically for the purpose of pumping out the contaminated fluid Amnerstdale the most common approach, but existing water- supply wells have been used, in addition to surface drains and ditches.
Existing ground-water contamination prob- hzm will become more troublesome in the future because of the long-time factors involved in decay of the pollutants, the slow movement of the affected ground-water body, exhaustion of the soils' ability to reduce the concentrations of or to remove specific pollutants, and the ever-increasing volume and complexity of contaminating fluids. Practices leading to pollution have been most active over the past 30 to 40 years, which is a relatively short time period with Amhersteale to the migration of pollutants in the ground.
Most pollutants are still in water-table aquifers and within close proximity of their source. With time, contamination will spread horizontally-and vertically and affect more and more surface streams and water-supply wells. Throughout this Amherstdle, the terms "pollution" and "contamination" are synonymous and mean the degradation of natural water quality, as a result of man's activities, to the extent that its usefulness is impaired.
There is no implication of any specific limits such as those in the U. Public Health Service drinking water standardssince the degree of permissible pollution depends upon the intended end use, or eaat, of the water. Increases in concen- tration of one or more constituents as the natural Amhrrstdale of movement of ground water through an aquifer are referred to as "mineralization.
Characteristic physiographic features range from broad areas of minor relief in the southeastern portion to hilly and rugged, mountainous terrain in the west and north. As of the census, Climate of the region is humid, with average annual rates of precipitation ranging from 32 to 50 inches. In18 percent of the total water used in the area was from ground-water sources. The largest use of ground water Vidginia for public supply.
Natural ground-water quality in the Northeast is suitable for most purposes with little or no treatment. High iron Amherstddale with associated high concentrations of manganeselow pH, and some- times high hardness are the most widespread problems. High total dissolved solids and chlorides are characteristic of ground water in some coastal aquifers and in deeper bedrock units underlying western Maryland, Virginiia York, and Pennsylvania.
Northwest The northwest study region covers an area ofsquare miles, representing 20 percent of the conterminous United States. The region is characterized by a wide variety of landform features, ranging from plains, large basins and lowlands, to intermontane plateaus and high mountains. Climatic conditions differ widely because of the varied topography and movement of air masses across the continent. The Pacific Amherstdlae has a coastal- marine climate with high precipitation and runoff and low evaporation rates.
Eastward, the climate becomes the high-desert type with low precipita- tion, low runoff, and high evaporation rates. Ground water provided 12 percent of the total water used, with irrigation the largest user of both ground and surface water. In the Pacific Coast States, ground water is comparatively low in total dissolved solids, but high in iron and manganese. Ground water in many areas of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado contain high concentrations of fluoride.
In addition, there are numerous thermal springs and large areas are under- lain by aquifers yielding ground water with a high total dissolved solids content. South Central The south central study area coverssquare miles, or about 19 percent of the conterminous United States. The region is charac- terized by high mountain ranges, vast stretches of deserts and plains, and large swamps. Climate varies from arid, in the deserts of New Mexico and west Texas, to humid in the marshlands of Louisiana, with annual precipitation of 8 and 64 inches, respectively.
In Amhersttdale, there were 20 million residents, repre- senting 10 percent of the United States population. Ground water provided 57 percent of the total fresh water used inwith the largest withdrawals for irrigation. Natural ground-water quality ranges from generally good but hard, to very hard with high concentrations of iron, fluoride, or sulfate. Several areas Virginis troubled by arsenic, dissolved gases or objectionable amounts of silica or nitrate. Southwest The southwest study area coverssquare miles, about 13 percent of the conterminous United States.
Characteristic physiographic features include high mountain ranges, vast deserts, several large salt lakes, and the Colorado plateau. Climate for the most part is arid to semi-arid less than 10 inches annual precipitation over broad areas. However, some of the mountains in California and Utah have relatively high precipitation, and several locations within the north coastal basin of Cali- fornia receive over 80 inches.
Inthe population of the area was over 23 million people. Ground water supplies about. Natural ground-water quality is generally good. However, high concentrations of total dissolved solids and chloride are encountered in some coastal areas of California and some inland regions of the other Weat. There are also scattered areas of excessive fluoride, boron, iron, nitrate, and manganese.
However, few descriptions of known instances of contamina- tion have been published. In order to gain a more accurate perspective on the status of pollution, it was necessary to contact public officials, con- sultants, scientists, well drilling contractors, representatives of industry, and others involved in water supplies so that their Amhdrstdale and individual experiences could be applied to the various studies. In the Northeast alone, information was obtained on more than 1, cases of ground-water con- tamination.
The of each of the investigations have been published in a report, except for the Northwest which is still in preparation van der Leeden et al, A brief discussion of the findings for each of the ificant sources of contamination follows. Amhersstdale relative importance Amherstfale region is given in Table 2. The four pollutants most commonly reported and the source of contamination are given in Table 3. Septic Tanks and Cesspools By sheer volume of waste water discharged, septic tanks and cesspools must be rated as the key potential source of ground-water contamination in all four regions.
In the 11 States covered by the northeast study, approximately 12 million people are served by individual home waste-water treat- ment systems. Assuming an average domestic water use of 40 to 80 gallons per day per capita, as much as one half to one billion gallons of raw sewage is discharged from residences directly into the subsurface each day. To this figure must be added the millions of gallons per day discharged to the ground from commercial Virgini industrial septic tanks.
It is a generally hzm fact that as girsl as milligrams per liter of total dissolved solids are added to water by domestic use, and thus, Wesg effluent from septic tanks can increase the concentration of minerals in ground water. The major concern or indicator of pollution from septic-tank and cesspool effluent is nitrate. Bacteria and viruses are normally removed by the soil Amherstdzle, but under conditions favorable for their survival, can reach Anherstdale water table and can travel ificant distances through an Amherstdake.
Of growing concern is the tremendous increase in the of homesites where soil and geologic conditions are not favorable for sufficient removal of pollutants. This condition exists in many moun- tainous resort areas. Arid regions are especially vulnerable to contamination of ground-water sup- plies where homes are served by both on-site wells and waste-disposal systems. Because of the lack of Table 2.
Even in humid regions, investigators have concluded that the relatively small amount of natural ground-water recharge available in Amuerstdale underlain by poor aquifers limits septic tank use. Studies have shown that in many housing develop- ments recycling of liquid waste in the ground- water system is an inevitable fact of life. Probably the most comprehensive field research on the effects on ground-water quality of effluent discharged by typical individual sewage disposal systems has been carried out on Long Island, New York.
Contamination from septic tank and cesspool effluent, and to some degree from fertilizers, has occurred in major aquifers over an square-mile area. The nitrate-enriched water has penetrated hundreds of feet into the principal artesian coastal-plain aquifer. In spite of their potential for ground-water contamination, millions of septic tanks will continue to be used in all of the regions studied, and their Virbinia s will probably increase during at least the next decade.
Limitations on local, State, and Federal budgets limit the installa- tion of public sewers. Even in areas where the density of housing and problems of ground-water contamination have justified the need for conver- sion to collecting sewers and treatment plants, a long time period is normally required for the public systems to become fully operational after funding has been secured.
Petroleum Exploration and Development In70 percent of the total United States crude oil was produced from more thanwells in the south central region. Each operating oil or gas well is considered a potential or actual source of pollution to fresh-water aquifers because of improper control of gas, oil, salt water, or the many chemicals used in drilling and production activities. Production of crude oil is usually accompanied by the production of waste water of variable but usually high chloride content.
A ratio of a dozen or more barrels of brine to each barrel of oil produced is not Amherstdals, and billions of barrels of brine waste water are produced in the south central States alone each year. Most oil field brines are returned to subsurface formations through old production wells or brine disposal wells for the purpose of waterflooding or just as a disposal method. However, many of these wells are poorly deed for injection, and they offer the opportunity for the salt water to enter fresh-water formations through ruptured or corroded casings.
Abandoned oil and gas wells, in addition to test holes drilled for geophysical exploration, are also potential sources of ground-water pollution. Open bore holes or abandoned wells with corroded casings can act as conduits for surface pollutants to enter the ground-water eas. Some improperly plugged wells discharge brine continuously on the surface, contaminating shallow fresh-water aquifers. Even in cases where eqst well is not flowing, saline water from deep formations can migrate under natural pressure up the bore hole and enter shallow aquifers containing potable water.
Another problem has been the widespread practice of discharging the brine waste water to 11 unlined pits and basins. The highly mineralized water can leak into shallow aquifers over broad areas. Spills and leaks from pipes and tanks are also common in oil fields. Similar conditions gam those described above for mAherstdale south central region also exist in each of the other three regions.
Although many States Virgimia passed Virginix and are enforcing regulations on lining brine pits, plugging abandoned wells, and otherwise controlling pollution from petroleum exploration and development, the problem is so extensive that this source of eWst contamination will be an important one for many years to come.
The problem has not been adequate- ly studied in any of the four regions. Brine con- tamination of ground water from pits and wells is only now being discovered in areas where oil and Akherstdale production was abandoned 30 or more years ago. Landfills Cases of contaminated ground-water supplies caused by the leaching of solid wastes contained in municipal and industrial landfills has been reported in each of the four regions studied.
The problem has beeri most severe in the heavily urbanized area of the Northeast where an annual average precipitation of 42 inches can result in the generation of 57 million gallons of leachate per year at a acre landfill site. The principal indicators hma pollution identified in the documented cases of ground-water contamina- tion related to municipal solid waste disposal include high concentrations of BOD, COD, total dissolved solids, hardness, iron, sulfate, and chloride.
For industrial landfills, a of instances of ground water being contaminated with heavy metals and various organic compounds have been reported. In the Northwest, landfilled sawdust containing glue extracts has caused phenols to enter a shallow aquifer, resulting in contamination of nearby domestic wells. The polluted ground-water body in many instances is confined to within the general property boundaries of the landfill site.
However, there were cases inventoried in the Northeast where pollutants were detected in ificant concentrations after migrating more than 1, feet. In several instances, contamination could be traced a distance of more than a mile from the source. Data obtained on landfill contamination of ground water in the Northeast indicate that the thousands of landfills in the region gigls municipal and industrial solid waste are an almost universal source of pollution.
For the south central States, it has been concluded that the gilrs solid waste threat to ground-water quality is probably from land disposal of industrial wastes, which can consist of highly complex substances. With the trend toward greater use of monitor- ing wells by public agencies, it is reasonable to forecast a rapid increase in the discovery of new problems at existing landfills.
Unfortunately, adequate Virrginia for eliminating Wesy landfills as a continuing Wdst of contamination have not been developed. On the other hand, the siting, de, and operation of new landfills is receiving increased attention and Virgnia, which should help in limiting the development of future problems. This process concentrates salts by evapotranspiration and can introduce chlorides and other substances from irrigated dast into a ground-water aquifer by means Amhrstdale infiltration.
Pollutants in irrigation return flows may originate from many sources including the applied water, soils, fertilizers, and pesticides. In all but Amhrestdale northeast region, irrigation return flow is considered a major problem which has led to a large of areally extensive ground-water contamination cases. In the south central States, for example, ground-water quality has deteriorated from irrigation return flows in the Rio Grande basin eaat New Mexico and Texas.
In the southwestern States, degradation of ground-water quality on a broad scale has been haam in the San Joaquin basin in California. In the northwestern States, it is estimated that there are over two million acres of saline land within the region. A few of the larger areas current- Amherstdale West Virginia girls east ham experiencing irrigation return flow problems are: the valleys of the Grande, Platte, and Arkansas Rivers in Colorado; the Yakima valley in Amherstadle 12 ton; Larimer County in Wyoming; Rosebud County in Montana; the Snake River valley in Idaho; and the lower Columbia River basin in Washington.
One of the severest and best studied instances of a problem related to irrigation return flow is in the Grande Valley of Colorado, where a high percentage of the irrigated acreage has become marginal because of a high water table and concentrated salts. It has been Amherstdwle that approximately 37 percent of the total salt load from the Upper Colorado Basin is associated with irrigation return flows in this area.
Irrigation return flows from agricultural practices are and will continue to be a major source of ground-water contamination within the foresee- able future. In some areas, the problem could decrease in severity as new techniques are devel- oped for application and management of irrigation waters and more efficient use is made of crop types.
Surface Discharges Discharge of effluent from sewage treatment plants to dry stream beds and Vjrginia disposal of wastes on the open Wext at industrial and commercial facilities are important sources of ground-water contamination. In the northwest region, discharge from sewage treatment plants has eeast widespread problems of ground-water quality degradation in the Denver, Colorado area. Effluent released to stream channels has infiltrated valley fill aquifers Amherstadle to high detergent and nitrate levels in ground water.
Similar problems have occurred in some of the arid basins of the Southwest. In a recent Wfst on the disposal and management of waste oil in 18 counties of the New York metropolitan region, it was determined that millions of gallons per year of used auto lube and crankcase oil are simply dumped on the ground by individuals and gasoline station owners. More attention must be given to uncontrolled surface Wesh of liquids that can create prob- lems of ground-water contamination.
Regulatory agencies have halted uncontrolled discharge of wastes to the land surface where such practices have come to Amherstdals attention and where there is an alternative Virgjnia. Frequently, by the time the magnitude of the problem is properly appreciated, pollution is so widespread that clean-up operations are neither economically nor technically feasible. Surface Impoundments Surface impoundments used for storage and treatment of liquid municipal and industrial wastes are serious threats to ground-water quality.
Some impoundments containing waste effluent from sewage and industrial plants are referred to as "evaporation" ponds, but actually only operate successfully if see of the liquid wastes to, the subsurface occurs. Statistics on the and location of surface impoundments that may be a potential threat to ground-water quality have never been compiled.
However, in one State in the Northeast, an inventory was conducted by means of low-level aerial survey flights. In the south central region, thousands of sewage lagoons are scattered throughout the five-State area and undoubtedly contribute much to the pollution of ground water. Relatively high concentrations of nitrates have been found in shallow aquifers underlying many of these sewage lagoons.
In the cases of ground-water contamination inventoried in the Northeast, the most important pollutants found in the ground water virls with leaky lagoons and other types of surface impoundments include heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium, and mercury, phenols; and various forms of Wesst. The largest of instances are those in which the surface impoundments were giels wastes from chemical and metal processing industries.
The plumes of contaminated ground water developed as a result of leakage out of surface impoundments can be extensive in size and may contain large volumes of polluted ground water. In one case in the Northwest, disposal of liquid chemical wastes into unlined holding ponds has caused pollution of shallow ground water over an area of 12 square miles.
In the Northeast, disposal of liquid wastes from a metal processing plant into unlined basins, covering an area whose total size is less than an acre, created a plume of contaminated ground water 4, feet long, 1, feet wide, and 70 feet thick during a period of about 13 years. The maximum volume of contaminated ground water contained within this plume was estimated at million gallons. Few of the surface impoundments that may 13 be contributing to ground-water contamination have ever been monitored to determine their effect on ground-water quality.
If such monitoring were to take place, it is quite probable that a substantial of additional problems would be discovered. Unfortunately, removal of the pollu- tants from the ground normally is not economical- ly feasible. Because there have been some serious instances of ground-water contamination already reported, public agencies in the four regions are putting into effect more stringent controls over the manner in which new surface impoundments are constructed and the type of wastes that can be stored.
Typical regulations call for lining lagoons and basins with a material of low permeability where the impound- ment is receiving Amherstdale West Virginia girls east ham or hazardous wastes. Spills Accidental spills of liquid wastes, toxic fluids, gasoline, and oil occur in every region, accompanied by the risk that the pollutant can migrate down to the saturated sediments in the vicinity of the spill, and degrade ground-water quality.
Spills can occur at industrial sites, along highway and railroad rights of way, and at airports. By far the most prevalent pollutants reported as affecting ground- water quality from this source are hydrocarbons. A typical instance of a serious case of ground- water contamination from a spill occurred in the Northeast in when 30, gallons of jet fuel were spilled on the ground at an Air Force base. The crystalline rock aquifer was so badly polluted that the original wells supplying the base could not be used for 15 years after the spill took place.
In the Northwest, the Department of Ecology of the State of Washington recorded, during the first six months ofnearly complaints of spills, some of which affected ground-water quality. The accidental spill is an unavoidable hazard inherent in the storing and transportation of fluids. It is in the handling of spills after they have taken place that better protection of ground-water resources can be achieved. Because time appears to be the most important factor in minimizing ground-water pollution from spills, some States, including Pennylvania and New Jersey, have developed procedures for reporting spills to the proper authorities so that effective action can be taken quickly.
Buried Pipelines and Storage Tanks Pollutants escaping from leaky and ruptured buried pipes, including sewers, and from storage tanks have affected ground-water quality at a of locations in all four regions. The principal pollutants reported are hydrocarbons, which have leaked from gasoline service station and home fuel-oil storage tanks, industrial produc- tion facilities, and petroleum product transmission lines. Details on the of cases of ground- water contamination due to leakage from buried tanks and pipelines that occur in the various regions each year are not available.
However, some statistics are revealing. In the northeast region, the Pennsyl- vania Department of Environmental Resources estimates that 2, new or replacement storage tanks are buried each year within that State. Failure of the tank is normally the reason for replacement, and the product originally contained has been lost to the ground. As much as 37, gallons from various sources leaked into the subsurface during one day period. One interesting study in Colorado indicates that salts used for deicing service station driveways and electrolysis from electric street cars has increased corrosion in buried steel gasoline station tanks, leading to a greater incidence of failure.
A well documented case in the southwest region is that which occurred in southern California in Thousands of gallons of gasoline were found to have contaminated a broad area under- lying the City of Glendale. About 30 wells for observation, containment, and removal were drilled in the problem area. The clean-up operation also involved installation of two special facilities for separating gasoline from the polluted water pumped from the wells.
Exfiltration and infiltration occurring in sanitary and storm sewers is a recognized engineer- ing phenomenon. Where the system originally was deed poorly and installed improperly, or where the pipelines are old and in disrepair, leakage of substantial quantities of poor-quality water into the soil system can take place, eventually leading to contamination of an aquifer.
In Kings County, Long Island, New York, leakage from sewers may be the principal source of nitrate and total nitrogen in the ground water. In fact, leakage is so great that sewage is a ificant source of artificial recharge in this heavily urbanized area. Leaks in buried tanks and pipelines are a 14 continuing problem that is coming under greater scrutiny by public agencies in all four regions.
However, programs directed toward protection of ground-water quality have not yet been developed to any ificant degree. Research on methods for removing hydrocarbons from the ground-water reservoir is greatly needed because attempts to efficiently remove this pollutant have been relatively unsuccessful.
Mining Activities Ground-water contamination associated with extensive mining operations is prevalent in the northeast, northwest, and, to some extent, in the southwest regions. Most mining operations encounter ground water, and disposal of the highly mineralized or acidic drainage water from mine working is the most prevalent cause of ground- water pollution. In Pennsylvania, for example, investigations have shown that coal mine drainage with high concentrations of iron Amherstdale West Virginia girls east ham sulfate and an abnormally low pH has had a deleterious effect on both surface-water and ground-water quality over broad areas.
Other sources of ground-water contamination associated with mining activities include leachate from waste rock piles and leakage from tailing ponds. Uranium mine tailings in the Shirley basin of Wyoming are the cause of high concentrations of Ra in ground water. Metal sulfides contained in old mine tailings in the Coeur d'Alene basin of Idaho are the source of appreciable amounts of zinc in the local ground water.
A of studies. Closer control in the future will be given to the various potential sources of ground-water con- tamination associated with active mining operations, in order to protect ground-water quality. However, a major problem exists in how to deal with on-going cases of pollution from thousands of abandoned mines in all regions. In these instances public funds must be used, and the costs of the corrective measures typically are prohibitive. New Federal and State laws and regulations deed to minimize the impact on land use resulting from mining activities should be as concerned with aquifers as with the restoration of the visible environment and the protection of surface-water quality.
Salt-Water Intrusion Intrusion of salty water into fresh-water aqui- fers in coastal areas is one form of ground-water contamination that has been widely recognized for many years in all four regions. Salt water occurs naturally in water table and artesian aquifers in coastal areas. Pumping from wells near salty ground- water bodies can induce the mineralized water to intrude into fresh-water zones.
The large of individual and widely publicized cases of salt-water intrusion has led to the development of strict controls over diversion of ground water in the coastal plain States of the Northeast.
These controls on pum, together with the general knowledge of well drilling contractors and ground-water users of where saline- water aquifers occur, has been most effective in eliminating salt-water intrusion as a critical problem in the region. Contamination of wells with sea water does not appear to be a major problem in the Amherstdalee.
However, in the south central States, salt-water encroachment has affected a of important and heavily pumped ground-water areas including Baton Rouge and Lake Charles in Louisiana and Houston, Galveston-Texas City, and Matagorda- Lavoca Bay in Texas. In the Southwest, California has had serious problems of salt-water encroachment in many of its coastal basins. Various agencies in the State have established programs to reverse the movement of intruding saline water, the most well known of which involves the placement of a series of "barriers.
Some of these barriers have been successful in reversing the hydraulic gradient in the affected aquifer so that flow is toward the sea instead of toward fresh-water supply wells. An eeast more critical problem in each of the four regions than salt-water intrusion in coastal areas, is that which can occur inland.
Many inland fresh-water aquifers also are in direct contact with saline ground water. In most cases, the heavier mineralized water underlies the fresh water. Where wells are too deep or where excessive pumping modifies the hydraulic gradient, saline water may be drawn into zones formerly containing fresh water. Unlike coastal intrusion, potential problems associated with inland saline ground-water bodies have not been studied in detail.
Regulatory controls over diversion of ground water or well construction have not been developed to the degree that they have in coastal areas, and saline-water intrusion in 15 inland regions will continue to be a ificant problem. Water Wells Water wells under certain conditions can be sources of ground-water contamination. Typical examples are where a casing has been corroded or ruptured, where a well screen or an open bore hole interconnects two separate aquifers, where the surface casing has not been adequately sealed in soil or rock, or where an abandoned well is allowed to discharge salty water on to the land surface.
Water wells can serve as a means for transmission of pollutants from one aquifer to another or from the land surface to an aquifer. In some of the south central States, improper- ly constructed and abandoned water wells are considered by many public agency officials as the most ificant cause of ground-water pollution. Contamination problems are especially prevalent in cavernous limestones, such as those in the Edwards plateaus of Texas and the Ozark plateaus of Amherstdale West Virginia girls east ham.
Unplugged wells tapping artesian brine aquifers have resulted in reported cases of contamination of shallow ground-water supplies in a of counties in Texas. In the Northeast, salt-water intrusion in coastal areas has been aggravated at numerous locations by the presence of corroded well casings, which allow salt water to enter fresh-water aquifers either from an underlying or an overlying saline- water aquifer or from an adjacent salty surface- water body.
A classic example occurred in Baltimore, Maryland, where highly acidic industrial wastes in the water-table aquifer corroded the casings of more than 1, abandoned wells. Saline- water intrusion caused by pumping in the same shallow aquifer affected the deeper fresh-water artesian aquifer because the leaky, abandoned wells acted as conduits, allowing poor quality water to migrate into the deeper artesian aquifer.
A few of the States in the various regions have adopted regulations and codes governing well construction and the plugging of abandoned wells. However, it is difficult to enforce these regulations because records showing where operating water wells have been drilled over the past 50 years are incomplete. Better reporting of well data to public agencies is required.
Licensing of well-drilling contractors in many States has been moderately effective in improving well construction practices. Jones; step-daughters Mary Johnson and Carolyn Blankenship; 14 grandchildren and 19 great-grandchildren. She was a lifelong resident of West Virginia and very proud of it. She was much loved by and will forever live in the hearts of her children, grandchildren and all who knew her.
Funeral services will be conducted 2 p. Sunday at the Reger Funeral Chapel by Dr. Bob Ray. Funeral service 11 a. Saturday, Chapman's Mortuary, Huntington. Visitation from 6 to 8 p. Friday at the funeral home. Donations may be made to Crook Chapel Church. Camp, 90, of Huntington, W. Services will be conducted 2 p. She was born March 14,in Pikeville, Ky. She was also preceded in death by her husband, James H. Visitation will be from 1 to 2 p.
Baldwin, 68, of Huntington, W. Marys Medical Center, Huntington. Saturday at the Reger Funeral Chapel. He was born March 18,in South Williamson, W. He was a former foreman at Duncan Box Company. In addition to his parents, he was preceded in death by a step-son, Gregory L. Survivors include two sons and daughters-in-law, Henry "Hank" Baldwin Jr. Funeral services will be conducted at 2 p. Darell Hager. Fred was born on April 7,in Huntington, W. Special friends, D.
A special sister-in-law, Sherry Lyell of Barboursville, W. Timothy "Tim" Poore, 63, of Huntington, W. John's Episcopal Church, where he was a member, with The Rev. John D. Stonesifer officiating. Burial will be in Spring Hill Cemetery, Huntington. Tim was born September 13,in Williamson, W. Staker of Huntington. He was the loving husband of Sandy Poore to whom he was married for forty-two years.
He would not want us to forget to mention his family pets Daisy, Molly, Cooper and Mickey. He was a member of the U. Naval Reserve and served in the U. A member of state and local bar associations, he was in private law practice, served as Assistant Prosecuting Attorney of Mingo County, and City Attorney for Williamson, W.
Professionally he lived his belief that the law should be a gentlemen's practice. Tim was a gentle, caring, and giving man who will be greatly missed by all who knew and loved him. May he find peace, love, and warmth in God's care. She is the widow of Clarence Brown, whom she shared 55 years of marriage before his passing in May In addition to her parents and husband she was preceded in death by her son, David Clarence Brown; a son-in-law, James C.
Also a very special person, Kristian Carol Crum, who became a very important part of her life during her extended illness From: Diane Renfrow dhrenfrow at yahoo. Robert J. He was the retired Senior Judge of the U. Southern District Court. Funeral service will be 1 p. Funeral services will be held at 1 p.
Monty Brown officiating. Burial will be in Spring Hill Cemetery. Staker Sr. In addition to his parents, he was preceded in death by a son, J. Timothy Poore; and his three brothers, Fred G. Staker Jr. Judge Staker served his country in the U. Judge Staker committed himself gitls serving the people of West Virginia as a member of the legal profession.
Weest practiced law in Williamson, WV from until He continued his career by becoming a senior judge on January 1,and continued as senior judge until his retirement in She retired from ACF Industries. Friday at the Reger Funeral Home. There are no funeral services scheduled.
Blankenship, 71, of Huntington, W. She was retired from ACF Industries.
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